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    Laboratory information system

    شاطر
    avatar
    الطيار
    مؤسس أسرة صناعة النجاح
    مؤسس أسرة صناعة النجاح

    ذكر عدد الرسائل : 328
    العمر : 33
    الدولة : KURDISTAN - IRAQ
    العمل/الوظيفة : المنتـــ مدير ــــدى
    نقاط : 21856
    تاريخ التسجيل : 18/10/2008

    Laboratory information system

    مُساهمة من طرف الطيار في 22/04/09, 01:41 pm

    A lab information system ("LIS") is a class of software that receives, processes, and stores information generated by medical laboratory processes. These systems often must interface with instruments and other information systems such as hospital information systems (HIS). An LIS is a highly configurable application which is customized to facilitate a wide variety of laboratory workflow models. Deciding on an LIS vendor is a major undertaking for all labs. Vendor selection, typically takes months of research and planning. Installation takes from a few months to a few years depending on the complexity of the organization. There are as many variations of LISs as there types of lab work. Some vendors offer a full service solution capable of handling a large hospital lab's needs, others specialize in specific modules. Disciplines of laboratory science supported by LIS' include hematology, chemistry, immunology, blood bank (Donor and Transfusion Management), surgical pathology, anatomical pathology, flow cytometry and microbiology. This article covers clinical lab which encompasses hematology, chemistry and immunology.

    Basic operation
    Laboratory Information Systems are often part of an integrated informatics solution which involve many disparate applications. Use of an LIS is a critical piece of the clinical IT spectrum of systems and contributes significantly to the overall care given to patients. The LIS is used in inpatient and outpatient settings and in many cases is designed to support both. From an outpatient/ambulatory perspective, LIS interaction frequently begins after a physician has arrived at an initial diagnosis. For example, a patient enters the hospital looking pale and complaining of fatigue. The physician, suspecting anemia, might decide to order a Full blood count (FBC). In an inpatient setting when that patient is admitted into the hospital, the system is used to order tests, provide specimen processing assistance, receive the results from analyzers and deliver lab reports to the attending physician.

    Order entry and check in
    An order is placed in the system usually by a physician or laboratory scientist. The order or lab request contains a list of tests to be performed on one or more patient specimens, for example blood or urine. In many cases, each order is tracked with a unique identifier. This identifier (which is usually a number) is often referred to as Lab ID. In this hypothetical case, a FBC is ordered which is a panel of sub tests including white blood cell count, red cell blood count and other blood-related tests.

    A [phlebotomist] will be called upon to collect the specimen(s) from the patient. Often, different specimens will be collected, so as to provide different tubes, with a specific cap color, for each analyzer that will process the samples. In this case, the appropriate specimen (using vacutainer tube with lavender top) is taken from the patient, labeled with a bar code specimen label produced by the LIS. The LIS will print barcoded labels (with the unique lab ID No) for the draw tubes. In some cases, more advanced LIS products will also provide a unique identifier for each specimen. This provides the ability to track, at the specimen level, the chain of custody from the point it is taken from the patient to the point that it gets discarded. The specimen-accession-patient hierarchy is linked in a tree like numeric structure. In other cases,the patient is identified by a Lab-ID linked to the patient's demographic record through the Hospital number.

    Specimen receiving
    After the specimen is collected, it is sent/brought to the lab for processing typically in a batch. This event should be recorded in the LIS. Upon reception in the testing lab, either manual or automated lab work can begin. FBCs are performed by automated analyzers.

    Send test orders to analyzers
    Most LIMS systems can be configured to download the specimen data to an analyzer either after the order is placed or when a specimen is received in a testing lab. When the barcoded specimen is read by the instrument, the unique ID is read off the specimen label and matched with the order previously downloaded to the instrument. This system is often called "Batch Download". A more efficient system is called "Host Query", where the instrument reads the barcode on the specimen and "queries" the LIS for the test orders. The LIS will be listening on a communication port for queries and will download the requests only when required. In cases where the LIS transmits data such as test orders or control messages to analyzers the communication is set up to be bi-directional.

    Results entry
    When results of lab tests are available, they are entered into the system manually or automatically downloaded from an instrument. Once these results are double checked by the Medical Laboratory Scientist or autoverified, they are released. Released results are often automatically printed or written on lab reports which are delivered to the attending physician or clinic. Results must be, as soon as possible, verified and released to attending physicians.

    Lab reporting
    Lab Reports are the final output of all LIS systems and, in many cases, the primary LIS interaction with healthcare professionals outside of the lab. They can either be printed or faxed in paper-based labs, or delivered via email, file. The degree to which an LIS supports customizable lab reports and flexibility in modes of delivery of results is one major factor in determining its success in the marketplace.

    Basic features
    Laboratory Information Systems commonly support the following features:

    Patient Check In
    Order Entry
    Specimen Processing
    Result(s) Entry
    Reporting
    Patient Demographics
    Physician Demographics

    Additional features
    In addition LISs commonly support the following:

    Web based order entry
    Web based results inquiry
    Faxing and emailing of lab reports
    Custom report creation
    HL7 interfaces with reference labs and EMRs
    Preliminary reporting
    Final reporting
    Med tech worksheets
    Workload balancing
    Medicare medical necessity checking
    Billing
    Public health reporting
    Rule engines

    Types
    There are many laboratory disciplines requiring the support of computerized informatics. These include:

    Hematology
    Chemistry
    Immunology
    Blood bank donor center
    Blood bank transfusion
    Surgical Pathology
    Pathology
    Cytology (Cytopathology)
    Microbiology
    Flow cytometry
    TB

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو 11/12/18, 07:37 am